creations are hand-knotted on warp threads, one at a time,
in accordance to a strict code of colors and in the order
of their appearance in the pattern. Often the code is lyricized
into a song, which is hummed by the knitters at the time
of weaving. The cashmere rug is is clipped with shears to
make them smooth and then treated with several brightening
and protective chemical washes. A relatively simple cashmere
rug 4 feet by 6 feet would take 3 to 4 months to complete.
The motifs are generally floral or animals and birds.
The History of the cashmere rugs starts
in the early fifteenth century. According to early records
of Kashmir history, King Zain-ul-Abeedin, better known in
Kashmir as (Budshah), brought master cashmere rugs weavers
from Persia to train the local craftsmen of the Kashmir
valley, who already were master weavers of famous cashmere
textile, better known as cashmere Jamavar, cashmere Pashmina
and shahtoosh shawls.
Budshah introduced the assembly line system
into Karkhana’s (factories) for weaving, clipping
and washing of cashmere rugs in the 15th century. Because
of his personal interest in the development of this industry
in Kashmir the cashmere rugs industry flourished during
Originally from the down undercoat of the
Asiatic goat (Capra hircus laniger) cashmere fibers now
also come from 68 breeds of goats in 12 countries, which
are classified as cashmere because of a fiber diameter of
under 19 microns.
The industry suffered badly after this
period and its revival came only during the time of Mughal.
However, in the mid 18th century the Dogra’s ruled
Kashmir. Maharaja Ranbir Singh, the ruler of the time, showed
keen interest in the development of carpet industry in Kashmir
and it is in his period we see a lot of development in the
carpet Industry in terms of quality and production. The
cashmere rugs became valuable gifts from one King to another
and have been found in almost all the palaces in Central
In the early 19th century, the Cashmere
rugs caught the attention of the west, and it was highly
valued among the world’s best rug weaving regions.
Cashmere rug weaving in the valley got a fresh lease on
life when a European companies like The East India Co. and
C & M Hador, established karkhana's in the valley and
began exporting cashmere rugs to Europe & America.